Why Religious Freedom Promotes Human Well-being?

Author: Bugra Kalkan* Secularization of the public sphere and public education through strong and restrictive public policies has been often offered to solve the religious conflicts and religious radicalism problems in Muslim-majority countries. From this perspective, explicitly or implicitly, Islamic religious beliefs and organizations are seen in conflict with the idea of constitutional democracy, innovation…

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Religious Persecution Over Time and Countries

Author: Bugra Kalkan* Is religious persecution a unique phenomenon in Muslim-majority countries? Of course, not! Christian-majority countries and other-majority countries have also serious religion related violence issues. But this does not mean that there is no problem concerning Muslim-majority countries. As a matter of fact, Brian Grim and Roger Finke show that “religious persecution is…

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Why Governments Regulate Religion?

Author: Bugra Kalkan* Even in pluralistic Western Europe countries governments cannot resist to regulate religious affairs. The obvious result of these regulations is the monopolization of the religions. In developed liberal democracies, such as Western Europe, religious pluralism is under surveillance in highly regulated religious markets. Especially the dominant religion in these countries is monopolized…

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Religious Markets versus Secularization

Author: Buğra Kalkan* Secularization and socialization theories are the dominant explanations originated in sociology in religious studies. Advocates of secularization comprehend religious behavior as irrational behavior or childish superstitions that will be evaporated as the advancement of science and modernity. It is claimed that once the humanity understands how the nature and the society works…

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